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Structure of Sports Performance

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Guest fsps.muni.cz

Sports performance is understood as an extent to which a motor task limited by rules of a given sports discipline is accomplished. Sports perfomance factors are understood as a relatively independent parts of sports performance. Traditionally recognized factors of sports training in any sports disciplines include:

Somatic factors
Fitness factors
Technical factors
Tactical factors
Psychical factors

A common feature of the factors is that they can be affected by training (fitness, technical, tactical, and psychical) or they are taken into account in talent picking (somatic – e.g. selecting taller children for volleyball, basketball, or shorter  for gymnastics respectively). Sports performance factors correspond to the above sports training components. Sports performance is influenced by a number of factors. The importance and hierarchy of the factors depends on a specific sports discipline.

For marathon runners, long-term endurance training is an important part of the year’s microcycle, while with sports gymnastics development of this kind of endurance is not a priority.

The physical demands in sport are related to the activities of the athlete. The performance in selected sports discipline is based on the characteristic of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems as well as muscles, combined with the interplay of the nervous system. The muscular system is constituted by a multitude of components, which have important influence on the mechanical and metabolic behavior of the muscle. Muscle morphology and architecture, and myosin isoform composition play a major role in the contractile strength characteristics of the muscle evaluated as maximal isometric, concentric, and eccentric contraction force, maximal rate of force development, and power generation. Glycolytic muscle enzyme levels and ionic transport systems are major determinants of anaerobic power and capacity. Likewise, mitochondrial enzyme levels and capillary density exert a strong influence on aerobic muscle performance in turn affecting the force development and the maximal power output of human skeletal muscle, while also influencing the endurance performance of the muscle fibers. The respiratory, cardiovascular, and muscle characteristic are determined by genetic factors but they can also be developed by training. A number of environmental factors such as temperature and for outdoor sports, the weather and surface of competition ground also influence on the performance.

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