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In Australia, domestic soccer competitions run all year, with the competition season depending on the level of professionalism of the league. The professional league operates during the Australian summer season and semi-professional/amateur leagues compete during the Australian winter season.

Since 1977, the league system in Australia has involved one national top tier league controlled by the national body and many leagues that run below within each state, with no promotion and relegation linking the two. As the third least densely populated country in the world, Australia's large geographical area and the spread of the population, concentrated mainly around urban areas, is reason for a lack in national competition and a greater focus on state-based competition.

The National Soccer League (NSL) was established in 1977, as the first national top tier soccer competition in Australia, with teams based in five (eventually six) states. In 2004, the NSL was disbanded and replaced by the A-League. The first season of the new league began in 2005. The National Youth League was also launched in 2008 to provide a national youth development league for A-League clubs. In 2013, the National Premier Leagues (NPL) was established as a national second tier banner of the sport, underpinning the A-League. The NPL consists of the top-tier league competitions within each state federation (currently eight) in Australia. The eight league winners compete in a finals series at the conclusion of the regular season to determine the champion.

The FFA Cup is Australia's national knock-out cup competition involving all teams in the A-League and other teams qualifying via preliminary competitions. Previous attempts at a national knock-out cup competition include the Australia Cup and the NSL Cup. As well as the national FFA Cup, each State also has its own cup competition run by its respective State soccer federation. Some State competitions restrict the participants only to professional top flight or semi-professional clubs, whilst others have more open entries via invitation or qualifying rounds.

Similarly to the men's national competition, the women's W-League replaced the long dormant Women's National Soccer League as the women's national top tier league in 2008. The women's league system also involves one national top tier league controlled by the national body and many leagues that run below within each state, with no promotion or relegation linking the two.

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